Israel Gaza war: History of the conflict explained

Israeli military reports that 199 troops and civilians, including women and children, are being held as hostages in Gaza. At least 1,400 Israelis have been killed in the conflict.

In many airstrikes by the Israeli military against Gaza, more than 2,700 Palestinians have died. While Israel has placed the region under a complete blockade, depriving it of food, gasoline, and other necessities. The Israeli military is also gathering troops near the Gaza border, and the Palestinians are preparing for a ground operation that could result in a great number of further casualties. A lot of questions have asked what was Israel before 1948 and what was the Balfour Declaration. These two questions provide a lot of background information on why this conflict may have started. Following the Ottoman Empire’s loss in World War One, which dominated that region of the Middle East, Britain seized control of the region known as Palestine. Inhabitants of the territory included a Jewish minority, an Arab majority, and other, smaller ethnic groups. When the international world tasked the UK with creating a “national home” in Palestine for Jews, tensions between the two peoples rose. This was a result of the Balfour Declaration of 1917, a promise made to Britain’s Jewish population by the country’s then-foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour. The League of Nations, the founder of the United Nations, approved the declaration in 1922, and it was incorporated into the British mandate over Palestine. Palestinian Arabs also lived in Palestine, which was their ancient homeland for Jews. Although Palestinian Arabs also claimed the region and were against the plan, Jews considered Palestine to be their historic homeland.

Jews began to move there in greater numbers between the 1920s and 1940s, many of whom were escaping persecution in Europe, particularly the Nazi Holocaust during World War Two. Violence against British rule and between Jews and Arabs both rose. Jerusalem was designated as an international city when Palestine was divided into Jewish and Arab governments in 1947. The Arab side rejected the plan, which was never put into action despite the Jewish leadership’s acceptance of it.

Which issues cause the most tension between Israelis and Palestinians?

The two parties are unable to reach consensus on a number of subjects.

These comprise:

-What must be done for Palestinian refugees?

-Whether or not Jewish enclaves on the occupied West Bank should be evicted.

-Whether or if the two parties ought to divide Jerusalem.

-The most difficult question of all is whether a Palestinian state should be established alongside Israel.

Why are Israel and Gaza at war now?

Gaza is governed by Hamas, an Islamist militant organization that has been labeled a terrorist organization by the UK and many other nations. Hamas is dedicated to the destruction of Israel. The rival Fatah faction of President Mahmoud Abbas, who is located in the West Bank, was driven out of Gaza by Hamas, which had won the Palestinians’ most recent elections in 2006. Since then, militants in Gaza have engaged Israel in a number of battles. Israel and Egypt have kept a partial siege on the territory in an effort to isolate Hamas and put an end to attacks, particularly the indiscriminate firing of rockets at Israeli cities. Israel’s limitations and airstrikes on densely populated areas, according to Palestinians in Gaza, amount to collective punishment. In the occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem, this past year was the deadliest on record for Palestinians. They also criticize the restrictions and military operations undertaken there in reaction to attacks on Israelis that resulted in fatalities.


In conclusion, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a long-standing, complex conflict characterized by historical resentments, territorial disputes, and stark ideological contrasts. A cycle of violence and instability is sustained by the inability to come to an agreement on crucial issues, such as the status of Jerusalem, the Palestinian right of return, and the creation of a Palestinian state. Israeli security concerns and the existence of Hamas in Gaza have made the situation more difficult and led to intermittent outbursts of violence. For the international community, tackling these difficult problems and identifying a way to achieve permanent peace continues to be a tough undertaking.